There are a number of sensors ion the sump that will check quality of oil and that combined with the type of driving you do. Some points to remember,
If you do short trips you will not be doing DPF regens much. DPF regens use diesel as the medium to for the burn process, if this gets interrupted (which short journeys will do), it will dump diesel back into the sump. This has a couple of effects, 1, thinning, 2 introduction of ash (black shit), 3 sludging/emulsification from bio products.
Lubricants are not all made equal (like fuel). There are two main constituents to producing lubes
1. Base oil – this comes in 5 grades, 1 to erm.. 5 1 being from a bye gone era , 5 being a fully synthetic base. Thick oil does not mean good oil – quite the opposite – a good oil will be fully synthetic with a lower starting viscosity, but will not change much under heat.
2. Additive packs – this is where the big difference is made. People like Castrol (BP), Fuchs, Chevron, Shell etc spent vast sums of money developing add packs with [other companies] to be mixed to their preferred base oils. The add packs have numerous benefits, antifoam, anti sludge, anti oxidant, emulsifiers, to name a few – Halfords own – well, good luck.
So back to the engines themselves. Some engines, especially new ones want you to use a certain type of oil, as it’s been largely designed around using it, though there will be a “standard” that it is “comfortable” with. Use the correct oils and the variable servicing is normally able to extend the service intervals depending on the points above!
There are a lot of variables to consider with oild servicing, however I would simply suggest, get to know a good friendly specialist for your car (mines a BMW and the blokes are ex master mechanics charging a 3rd of a dealership), listen to your car (as you listen to your body) and use decent oils and fuel.